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Harraps Michel Thomas Methode.epub
imaginative fiction has been employed in the past by historians in the creation of their own historical narratives, and vice versa. this article explores the way in which historians of empire have used the writing of novelists, particularly the works of thomas hardy, to give their work a sense of context. this is done by exploring how the writing of hardy has been used by historians to illuminate aspects of the history of british imperialism, and vice versa. in particular, the article focusses on the novel the return of the native (1878) to examine how this novel was used by historians to illuminate the attitudes of the british public and the wider political culture to the second anglo-afghan war of 1878-1880. furthermore, it explores how the novel was used by historians to illuminate the complex relationship between the british public, the private worlds of the british ruling class and the british imperial project.
this article proposes a reading of thomas hardys 1898 novel, two on a tower, which juxtaposes the female protagonist millicent with the male-identified traveller, “augustus”. through their encounter and subsequent relationship, the novel displays the ways in which the struggle for a classless society is played out in the more developed metropolitan context. the relationship of class, gender and culture underpins the conflicts in this novel, which are explored through a close reading of the various texts that structure the narrative.
thomas hardy’s novel two on a tower has been the subject of much discussion in recent criticism. the novel has been read as a novel which challenges a number of postcolonial readings. the novel has been read as a vehicle for the development of a sophisticated and fascinatingly complex hero, the squire.
on the other hand, the novel has been read as a vehicle for the development of a sophisticated and complex heroine who represents the urban and the working-class classes, and whose domestic struggles involve a rejection of the squire. the novel has been read as a vehicle for the development of a sophisticated and sophisticated hero, the traveller augustus, who represents the lower class of the squire and his family. the novel has been read as a vehicle for the development of a sophisticated and sophisticated heroine, millicent, who represents the upper class of the squire and his family, and represents the domestic, the european.
The place that working-class women occupy within medical discourse has a long and complex history. Working-class women were relegated to the margins of society and the body in Victorian discourse, and a variety of policy interventions and initiatives were offered to improve their lives. Medical practitioners struggled to understand the effect of their work on the female body (Dorling and Dezso 1998, 141). Maternal mortality rates were high at the end of the nineteenth century, and were just one of several indicators of mothers ill health (Lovett 1999, 1010). Late twentieth century medical culture has also been shaped by a range of historical and cultural factors. From the late nineteenth century, and for a brief period in the 1930s, Britain had a birthing revolution in which a new approach to childbirth was introduced, particularly, the use of anaesthetic (Brindsford 1978, 94; Severn 1982, 59; Moore 1979, 128; McQuaid and de Bellaigue 1981, 5-6). The rise of the birth-control pill in the 1950s (Clarke 1982, 1174-7) and the rise of the domestic science movement in the 1960s (Lewis 1978, 152-2; Adonis 1998, 364-5; Phipps 1988, 339-40) provided medical and popular ideologies of maternity that were entirely different from Victorian constructions (Clarke 1982, 1171).Harraps Michel Thomas Methode.epub The long European tradition of gendering men as passive and women as active has obscured much of what feminism is and does, indeed, prevent us from understanding the radical and transgressive quality of female struggle and achievement in various political, economic and cultural spheres. In this article, in which I draw upon the recent work of Thompson, Salminen, Koleva, and von Almen, I show how this tradition is challenged in the nineteenth century and analyse what the growing appreciation of the radical potential of women’s writing in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, in particular, implies for the way we think about the history and influence of feminism. Harraps Michel Thomas Methode.epub The wide reach of Russian censorship during the reign of Nicholas II led to growing support for liberal and nationalist political sentiment, as the legacy of serfdom and the misrule of the autocratic system became widely apparent and as younger members of the Russian upper classes realized the extent of the economic and social problems facing their country (Humble et al. 1973, 674-6; Engerman 1992, 31). Russian intellectuals, writers, and clergy had witnessed and contributed to the devastation of the Crimean War, a conflict that had destroyed Russia’s ability to resist encroachments by a superior and more powerful Western nation. This conflict promoted a volatile climate for argument about national identity and about political institutions and constitutional arrangements. The impact of growing economic pressures, the threat of civil war and the murder of the Romanov dynasty helped create the conditions for the growth of political advocacy for political and social reforms within Russia (Engerman 1992, 32). Although debates about constitutional reform were often exaggerated, the 1860s nonetheless did witness the most vociferous reassertion of political and social rights within the boundaries of the Russian state (Rossetti 1986, 155-66). Generally, reform efforts were hampered by the strains of economic distress, caused by the burdens of the Crimean War, and by the effects of the 1863-1864 revolt of zemstvo reformers that spread from the city of Voronezh, where reformers had first emerged, to the provinces (Engerman 1992, 31-6).