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Din 15070 17
seed treatment with single chemical or physical agents is mostly performed with a sugar (glucose, maltose, lactose, sucrose or fructose) solution. (a) chemical, (b) physical mutagens. (a) enzymes, (b) heat or cold treatment, (c) ionizing radiation, (d) dna damage by some common chemicals. (gsh, znp), heavy metal-related (cd), (e) rna modification by some chemicals (adriamycin, folic acid). (f) reactive oxygen (o2 . and h2 o2), (g) sublethal concentration of herbicide or pesticide; (h) uv-b radiation; (i) gas (o2) impingement; (j) ultraviolet (uv-a and uv-b). (h) detailed mechanism of mutagenic action of ionizing radiation (dsbs) is not well understood. however, it is accepted that chemical mutagens cause dna damage, mainly by alkylating nucleobases (c-n or c-o bonds) causing mispairing, strand breakage, and recombinational errors during dna replication (millar, 1986 ). traumatic or extreme cold or heat treatment causes membrane damage and eventually kills cells. the interaction of ions and radicals derived from redox processes, increase the damages of cells. direct physical injuries of cells or of organs are caused mainly by oxygen (o2) or helium (he) (ir) and (b) beam irradiation for whole plant samples, (c) ionizing radiation, for cell samples.
the refuge is home to 145 species of migrant birds. the most commonly seen species are the atlantic canada and coastal murrelets. in 1999, more than half of all the swallows in the united states and canada were found on sanibel island.
the refuge is the home of two rare species. the endangered west indian manatee and the endangered west indian wood duck. in addition, several species of rare corkscrew-crowned songbirds are found here. the refuge is also the home of the endangered sanibel gopher frog and the endangered white-tailed deer. rare plants and plants on the brink of extinction also grow on the refuge.
amarillo beach is one of the best habitats remaining on sanibel island for the endangered west indian manatee. about 1,000 west indian manatees spend the winters in the waters of southwest florida, and the protected status of the refuge may help the species recover from a decline in numbers. the west indian manatee is also a florida state champion.
the west indian manatee is a large, herbivorous marine mammal. the majority of its diet consists of aquatic plants. furthermore, the refuges for the west indian manatee are home to feeder sea turtles, wading birds, and shore birds. overall, the west indian manatee depends on wild populations and those populations depend on the coastal mangrove ecosystem, an invaluable habitat vital to the species.
sanibel island is a state wildlife refuge. this important nature preserve is home to endangered and threatened species, notably the white-tailed deer, florida scrub jay, and endangered and threatened shore birds, reptiles, and birds. the ranch-style main building was constructed from recycled materials and contains a 4-d cinema, nature center, and gift shop.
amarillo beach is an 8,542-acre ecological preserve that preserves old-growth coastal prairie as well as the most outstanding maritime pine ridge in florida. its annual precipitation ranges from 15-35 inches.