2021 Crack Topocal 2012
Crack Topocal 2012
among these strategies, marijuana prohibition has been associated with increases in criminal activity, typically involving males, who are the most frequent marijuana users.97 by contrast, several states have recently experienced decreased drug-related crime when they legalized marijuana use, despite the wide availability of the drug.98 crack cocaine, however, has attracted little public concern or policy attention, despite substantial effects on adolescent drug users. a number of states have considered legalization of crack cocaine, using social-control and public health as their rationale.99 but legislators have been concerned about a few adverse consequences that would likely accompany legalization: that the legalization would not effectively diminish the availability of crack cocaine, potentially lead to increases in the use of crack cocaine by adolescents and children, and the increase of new and more potent forms of crack cocaine could lead to increased crime.100
however, these concerns can be addressed by a number of public health measures. first and foremost, addressing the social problems that lead adolescents to engage in drug use is necessary to reduce drug use and abuse. reducing depression and increasing both family stability and self-esteem are especially relevant to adolescent drug use.101 a number of studies suggest that parental cohesiveness and family involvement are important correlates of adolescent drug use, particularly marijuana use.102 for example, a recent survey by the national institute on drug abuse found that students who had a close relationship with their family were less likely to use marijuana, cocaine, and other drugs than students with less family involvement.103
in 1993, a year before the surgeon general’s “crack vs. cocaine” report, which was followed by the angry congressional hearings, the number of initiates of crack (ranging from 940,000 to 1.2 million) was the lowest on record. while this downward trend continued for the rest of the 1990s, it may have been fueled by the sweeping federal sentencing legislation at the time, which permitted only minimal mandatory penalties for drug offenses. in 2001, when the number of crack initiates hit a peak of 1.3 million, this “crack epidemic” actually began to reverse itself. a period of intense enforcement and simultaneous reducing of sentences for drug offenses led to an unprecedented increase in the rates of arrest for drug possession and other drug-related offenses. between 2006 and 2009, the number of initiates of crack cocaine declined by more than 20 percent to 562,000.
this decline has continued for the last few years. although the number of initiates of crack cocaine remains at the same high level as in 2008 (518,000 in 2012), it has declined to the lowest level in the last 12 years. this suggests that over the last decade, the nationwide, urban drug market in the united states has become less dependent on crack cocaine.
the number of recent initiates of cocaine in 2013 was about 12 percent higher than in 2007 to 2009. increases were observed in all nine major drug type categories, with increases for crack cocaine ranging from 28.2 percent to 40.4 percent and for powder cocaine ranging from 5.6 percent to 12.7 percent. the increases in crack cocaine initiates were largely due to increases among males, but among females, there were increases in initiates of powder cocaine, marijuana, hallucinogens, methamphetamine and heroin. increases in cocaine initiates were also observed for all nine major drug use types. crack cocaine initiation rates have fluctuated since 2002, ranging from a high of 219,000 initiates per year in 2007 to a low of 105,000 initiates per year in 2012. in 2013, the rate of crack cocaine initiation increased to 55,000 initiates per year.